VIVA is funded through support from the Virginia General Assembly, augmented by the local institutional library budgets. Funding is allocated to VIVA by the General Assembly on a biennial basis.
Total funding for the 2022-23 year is estimated to be approximately $20.7 million, of which $10.7 million (51.4%) is from the Commonwealth budget, an estimated $7.5 million (36.0%) will come from the public institutions and an estimated $2.6 million (12.5%) will come from the participating private, nonprofit members.
Overall, the vast majority of expenditures (95%) continue to be for direct services for our member libraries, supporting students and faculty. Of the total budget in FY23, 89% was allocated for electronic collections, 2% was allocated for resource sharing and interlibrary loan, 3.5% was allocated for the new open and affordable course content program, 0.5% was allocated for travel and training, and 5% was spent on central administrative costs of any kind.
In addition to the resources acquired through the General Assembly's allocations and local institutional budgets, individual institutions have supported the VIVA project in a variety of ways, most notably through the significant amounts of time donated by dedicated library staff members throughout the Commonwealth.
VIVA libraries take pride in knowing that significant financial benefits have accrued to our members through the group purchases. As of July 1, 2018, the Virtual Library of Virginia (VIVA) had recorded over $1 billion in cost avoidance. This represents money saved over what would have been spent had each individual public institution acquired the VIVA resources independently. In most cases, these are resources that the local colleges and universities would not have been able to acquire in an electronic form without the Commonwealth's support for VIVA. VIVA not only saves money, but also levels the playing field across VIVA institutions and extends access for all of Virginia's students and faculty. Further significant cost avoidance has been achieved for subscriptions and acquisitions on behalf of the VIVA private colleges and universities.
About the VIVA Budget
VIVA began on July 1, 1994, and has been funded in two-year periods since then.
- 1994-96: The Commonwealth of Virginia's General Assembly provided the first funding for VIVA when it appropriated $5,238,221 as requested in the 1994-96 Biennium Proposal.
- 1996-98: The 1996-98 Biennium Proposal for continued funding was approved, providing $4,991,000 for the 1996-98 biennium period.
- 1998-2000: The Virginia General Assembly considered VIVA's 1998-2000 Proposal and approved the funding for the 1998-2000 Biennium.
- 2000-02: VIVA's 2000-02 biennial budget totaled $10,720,619 from all sources.
- 2002-04: VIVA's 2002-04 biennial budget from the state was cut approximately 13 percent during the spring and fall of 2002. The total 2002-04 biennium budget from all sources was $11,071,580. This is slightly higher than the previous total biennial budget because VIVA procurement began handling all VIVA invoices for our private nonprofit colleges and universities.
- 2004-06: VIVA's 2004-06 biennial budget from all sources was $13,372,674.
- 2006-08: VIVA's 2006-08 biennial budget from all sources was $19,829,913.
- 2008-10: VIVA's 2008-10 biennial budget from all sources was $21 million.
- 2010-12: VIVA's 2010-12 biennial budget from all sources was $27 million.
- 2012-14: VIVA's 2012-14 biennial budget from all sources was $30.3 million. This included new General Assembly funding of $1.4 million each year in support of a major e-book initiative in the Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics and Health (STEM-H) areas, and to sustain the ongoing collections budget.
- 2014-16: VIVA's 2014-16 biennial budget from all sources was $32.6 million. VIVA sustained General Assembly budget cuts of 5% each year of the biennium, but there were increases in member library spending. For the first time, new products, such as the Oxford Scholarship Online ebook collection, were funded entirely from member contributions.
- 2016-18: VIVA's 2016-18 biennial budget from all sources was $35.2 million. This included new General Assembly funding of $1.2 million in FY17 and $1.3 million in FY18 to regain funding lost in 2014-16, sustain the public shared collections, and provide funding for e-book collections with statewide relevance. VIVA subsequently sustained General Assembly budget cuts of 5% each year of the biennium, but there was a net positive effect.
- 2018-20: VIVA's 2018-20 biennial budget from all sources was $38.9 million. The General Assembly supported an increase of approximately $1 million in FY19 and $1.2 million in FY20 to support a new open and affordable course content program, sustaining funds for the shared public collections, and an increase to the Private Pooled Funds.
- 2020-22: VIVA's 2020-22 biennial budget from all sources was $39.6 million. The General Assembly supported $400,000 increases each year as sustaining funds for the shared public collections. They were initially both removed due to COVID-19 budget concerns, but the amount was reinstated for FY21.
- 2022-24: VIVA's 2022-24 biennial budget from all sources was $40.6 million. The General Assembly supported a $1.5 million increase in FY23 and $1.8 million increase in FY24.